਀ ਀            㰀琀搀 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀⌀昀昀昀昀昀昀∀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀 㰀⼀琀爀㸀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 㰀⼀琀搀㸀 ਀    㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀攀氀氀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀挀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 挀攀氀氀眀椀搀琀栀㴀㄀  ─㸀㰀琀爀㸀 㰀琀搀 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀㌀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀㄀  ─ 愀氀椀最渀㴀氀攀昀琀㸀 ਀㰀栀㄀㸀圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀㰀⼀栀㄀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䤀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 攀愀猀礀 琀漀 搀爀愀眀 愀 挀氀攀愀爀 搀椀猀琀椀渀挀琀椀漀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 洀愀最椀挀 愀渀搀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀⸀ 䈀漀琀栀 愀爀攀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀爀漀搀甀挀椀渀最 漀昀 攀昀昀攀挀琀猀 戀攀礀漀渀搀 琀栀攀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 瀀漀眀攀爀猀 漀昀 洀愀渀 戀礀 愀最攀渀挀椀攀猀 漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 䐀椀瘀椀渀攀 ⠀挀昀⸀ OCCULT ART, OCCULTISM). But in witchcraft, as commonly understood, there is involved the idea of a diabolical pact or at least an appeal to the intervention of the਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㐀㜀㄀ 愀⸀栀琀洀㸀猀瀀椀爀椀琀猀 漀昀 攀瘀椀氀㰀⼀愀㸀⸀ 䤀渀 猀甀挀栀 挀愀猀攀猀 琀栀椀猀 猀甀瀀攀爀渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 愀椀搀 椀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 椀渀瘀漀欀攀搀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 琀漀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀 琀栀攀 搀攀愀琀栀 漀昀 猀漀洀攀 漀戀渀漀砀椀漀甀猀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀Ⰰ 漀爀 琀漀 愀眀愀欀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 氀漀瘀攀 椀渀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀栀漀 愀爀攀 琀栀攀 漀戀樀攀挀琀猀 漀昀 搀攀猀椀爀攀Ⰰ 漀爀 琀漀 挀愀氀氀 甀瀀 琀栀攀 搀攀愀搀Ⰰ 漀爀 琀漀 戀爀椀渀最 挀愀氀愀洀椀琀礀 漀爀 椀洀瀀漀琀攀渀挀攀 甀瀀漀渀 攀渀攀洀椀攀猀Ⰰ 爀椀瘀愀氀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 昀愀渀挀椀攀搀 漀瀀瀀爀攀猀猀漀爀猀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 渀漀琀 愀渀 攀砀栀愀甀猀琀椀瘀攀 攀渀甀洀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀 猀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瀀爀椀渀挀椀瀀愀氀 瀀甀爀瀀漀猀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 洀愀搀攀 琀漀 猀攀爀瘀攀 愀琀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 愀氀氀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀✀猀 栀椀猀琀漀爀礀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 琀爀愀搀椀琀椀漀渀愀氀 戀攀氀椀攀昀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 漀渀氀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀愀爀欀 愀最攀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 漀昀 瀀漀猀琀ⴀ刀攀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 漀爀 眀椀稀愀爀搀猀 愀搀搀椀挀琀攀搀 琀漀 猀甀挀栀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀猀 攀渀琀攀爀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 愀 挀漀洀瀀愀挀琀 眀椀琀栀 匀愀琀愀渀Ⰰ 愀搀樀甀爀攀搀 䌀栀爀椀猀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 Sacraments, observed "the witches' sabbath" — performing infernal rites which often took the shape of a parody of the਀㰀愀㸀䴀愀猀猀㰀⼀愀㸀 漀爀 琀栀攀 漀昀昀椀挀攀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀栀甀爀挀栀 ☀⌀㄀㔀㄀㬀 瀀愀椀搀 䐀椀瘀椀渀攀 栀漀渀漀甀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 Prince of Darkness, and in return received from him preternatural powers, such as those of riding through the air on a broomstick, assuming different shapes at will, and tormenting their chosen victims, while an imp or "familiar spirit" was placed at their disposal, able and willing to perform any service that might be needed to further their nefarious purposes.਀

The belief in witchcraft and its practice seem to have existed among all primitive peoples. Both in ancient Egypt and in਀㰀愀㸀䈀愀戀礀氀漀渀椀愀㰀⼀愀㸀 椀琀 瀀氀愀礀攀搀 愀 挀漀渀猀瀀椀挀甀漀甀猀 瀀愀爀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 攀砀椀猀琀椀渀最 爀攀挀漀爀搀猀 瀀氀愀椀渀氀礀 猀栀漀眀⸀ 䤀琀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 猀甀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 琀漀 焀甀漀琀攀 愀 猀栀漀爀琀 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 爀攀挀攀渀琀氀礀 爀攀挀漀瘀攀爀攀搀 䌀漀搀攀 漀昀 䠀愀洀洀甀爀愀戀椀 ⠀愀戀漀甀琀 ㈀    䈀⸀䌀⸀⤀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀爀攀 瀀爀攀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀Ⰰ ਀㰀瀀㸀㰀戀氀漀挀欀焀甀漀琀攀㸀 䤀昀 愀 洀愀渀 栀愀猀 氀愀椀搀 愀 挀栀愀爀最攀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 愀渀搀 栀愀猀 渀漀琀 樀甀猀琀椀昀椀攀搀 椀琀Ⰰ 栀攀 甀瀀漀渀 眀栀漀洀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 椀猀 氀愀椀搀 猀栀愀氀氀 最漀 琀漀 琀栀攀 栀漀氀礀 爀椀瘀攀爀㬀 栀攀 猀栀愀氀氀 瀀氀甀渀最攀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀攀 栀漀氀礀 爀椀瘀攀爀 愀渀搀 椀昀 琀栀攀 栀漀氀礀 爀椀瘀攀爀 漀瘀攀爀挀漀洀攀 栀椀洀Ⰰ 栀攀 眀栀漀 愀挀挀甀猀攀搀 栀椀洀 猀栀愀氀氀 琀愀欀攀 琀漀 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀 栀椀猀 栀漀甀猀攀⸀ 㰀⼀戀氀漀挀欀焀甀漀琀攀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䤀渀 琀栀攀 Holy Scripture references to witchcraft are frequent, and the strong condemnations of such practices which we read there do not seem to be based so much upon the supposition of fraud as upon the "abomination" of the magic in itself. (See Deuteronomy 18:11-12; Exodus 22:18, "wizards thou shalt not suffer to live" — A.V. "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live".) The whole narrative of਀㰀愀㸀匀愀甀氀✀猀㰀⼀愀㸀 瘀椀猀椀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀 漀昀 䔀渀搀漀爀 ⠀䤀 䬀椀渀最猀 ㈀㠀⤀ 椀洀瀀氀椀攀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀✀猀 攀瘀漀挀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀栀愀搀攀 漀昀 匀愀洀甀攀氀㬀 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 䰀攀瘀椀琀椀挀甀猀 ㈀ 㨀㈀㜀㨀 ∀䄀 洀愀渀 漀爀 眀漀洀愀渀 椀渀 眀栀漀洀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 愀 瀀礀琀栀漀渀椀挀愀氀 漀爀 搀椀瘀椀渀椀渀最 猀瀀椀爀椀琀Ⰰ 搀礀椀渀最 氀攀琀 琀栀攀洀 搀椀攀㨀 琀栀攀礀 猀栀愀氀氀 猀琀漀渀攀 琀栀攀洀㨀 吀栀攀椀爀 戀氀漀漀搀 戀攀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀洀∀Ⰰ 眀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀氀礀 椀渀昀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 搀椀瘀椀渀椀渀最 猀瀀椀爀椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 愀 洀攀爀攀 椀洀瀀漀猀琀甀爀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀爀漀栀椀戀椀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 猀漀爀挀攀爀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 一攀眀 吀攀猀琀愀洀攀渀琀 氀攀愀瘀攀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 椀洀瀀爀攀猀猀椀漀渀 ⠀䜀愀氀愀琀椀愀渀猀 㔀㨀㈀ Ⰰ 挀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 䄀瀀漀挀愀氀礀瀀猀攀 ㈀㄀㨀㠀㬀 ㈀㈀㨀㄀㔀㬀 愀渀搀 䄀挀琀猀 㠀㨀㤀㬀 ㄀㌀㨀㘀⤀⸀ 匀甀瀀瀀漀猀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 戀攀氀椀攀昀 椀渀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 眀攀爀攀 愀渀 椀搀氀攀 superstition, it would be strange that the suggestion should nowhere be made that the evil of these practices only lay in the pretending to the possession of powers which did not really exist.਀

We are led to draw the same conclusion from the attitude of the early Church. Probably that attitude was not a little influenced by the criminal legislation of the Empire as well as by Jewish feeling. The law of the Twelve Tables already assumes the reality of magical powers, and the terms of the frequent references in Horace to Canidia allow us to see the odium in which such sorceresses were held. Under the Empire, in the third century, the punishment of burning alive was enacted by the State against witches who compassed another person's death through their enchantments (Julius Paulus, "Sent.", V, 23, 17). The ecclesiastical legislation followed a similar but milder course.਀

The਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㔀㌀㤀㔀戀⸀栀琀洀㸀䌀漀甀渀挀椀氀 漀昀 䔀氀瘀椀爀愀㰀⼀愀㸀 ⠀㌀ 㘀⤀Ⰰ 䌀愀渀漀渀 㘀Ⰰ 爀攀昀甀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 holy Viaticum to those who had killed a man by a spell (per maleficium) and adds the reason that such a crime could not be effected "without਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㜀㘀㌀㘀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀椀搀漀氀愀琀爀礀㰀⼀愀㸀∀㬀 眀栀椀挀栀 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 洀攀渀猀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 愀椀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䐀攀瘀椀氀Ⰰ devil-worship and਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㜀㘀㌀㘀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀椀搀漀氀愀琀爀礀㰀⼀愀㸀 戀攀椀渀最 琀栀攀渀 挀漀渀瘀攀爀琀椀戀氀攀 琀攀爀洀猀⸀ 匀椀洀椀氀愀爀氀礀 挀愀渀漀渀 ㈀㐀 漀昀 琀栀攀 Council of Ancyra (314) imposes five years of penance upon those who consult magicians, and here again the offence is treated as being a practical participation in਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀㄀㄀㌀㠀㠀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀瀀愀最愀渀椀猀洀㰀⼀愀㸀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 氀攀最椀猀氀愀琀椀漀渀 爀攀瀀爀攀猀攀渀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀栀甀爀挀栀 昀漀爀 洀愀渀礀 挀攀渀琀甀爀椀攀猀⸀ 匀椀洀椀氀愀爀 瀀攀渀愀氀琀椀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 攀渀愀挀琀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 䔀愀猀琀攀爀渀 council in Trullo (692), while certain early Irish canons in the far West treated sorcery as a crime to be visited with਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㔀㘀㜀㠀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀攀砀挀漀洀洀甀渀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀 甀渀琀椀氀 愀搀攀焀甀愀琀攀 瀀攀渀愀渀挀攀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 瀀攀爀昀漀爀洀攀搀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀一漀渀攀 琀栀攀 氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 搀攀猀椀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀氀攀爀最礀 琀漀 挀栀攀挀欀 昀愀渀愀琀椀挀椀猀洀 椀猀 眀攀氀氀 椀氀氀甀猀琀爀愀琀攀搀 戀礀 猀甀挀栀 愀 挀漀甀渀挀椀氀 愀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 倀愀搀攀爀戀漀爀渀 ⠀㜀㠀㔀⤀⸀ 䄀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 椀琀 攀渀愀挀琀猀 琀栀愀琀 猀漀爀挀攀爀攀爀猀 愀爀攀 琀漀 戀攀 爀攀搀甀挀攀搀 琀漀 猀攀爀昀搀漀洀 愀渀搀 洀愀搀攀 漀瘀攀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀攀爀瘀椀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䌀栀甀爀挀栀Ⰰ 愀 搀攀挀爀攀攀 眀愀猀 愀氀猀漀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 琀攀爀洀猀㨀 ∀圀栀漀猀漀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 戀氀椀渀搀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 搀攀瘀椀氀 愀渀搀 椀渀昀攀挀琀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 瀀愀最愀渀 攀爀爀漀爀猀Ⰰ 栀漀氀搀猀 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀 昀漀爀 愀 眀椀琀挀栀 琀栀愀琀 攀愀琀猀 栀甀洀愀渀 昀氀攀猀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀昀漀爀攀 戀甀爀渀猀 栀攀爀Ⰰ 攀愀琀猀 栀攀爀 昀氀攀猀栀Ⰰ 漀爀 最椀瘀攀猀 椀琀 琀漀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 琀漀 攀愀琀Ⰰ 猀栀愀氀氀 戀攀 瀀甀渀椀猀栀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 搀攀愀琀栀∀⸀ 䄀氀琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 椀琀 洀愀礀 戀攀 猀愀椀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀栀椀爀琀攀攀渀 栀甀渀搀爀攀搀 礀攀愀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 ㌀㜀㄀㈀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀䌀栀爀椀猀琀椀愀渀㰀⼀愀㸀 攀爀愀 眀攀 昀椀渀搀 渀漀 琀爀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀愀琀 昀椀攀爀挀攀 搀攀渀甀渀挀椀愀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 瀀攀爀猀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 猀漀爀挀攀爀攀猀猀攀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀稀攀搀 琀栀攀 挀爀甀攀氀 眀椀琀挀栀 栀甀渀琀猀 漀昀 愀 氀愀琀攀爀 愀最攀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀 挀攀渀琀甀爀椀攀猀 愀 昀攀眀 椀渀搀椀瘀椀搀甀愀氀 瀀爀漀猀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 琀漀漀欀 瀀氀愀挀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀渀 猀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀漀爀琀甀爀攀 ⠀瀀攀爀洀椀琀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 刀漀洀愀渀 挀椀瘀椀氀 氀愀眀⤀ 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 琀漀漀欀 瀀氀愀挀攀⸀ Pope Nicholas I, indeed (A.D. 866), prohibited the use of torture, and a similar decree may be found in the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. In spite of this it was not everywhere given up. Also we must notice that a good many suspected witches were subjected to the ordeal of cold water, but as the sinking of the victim was regarded as a proof of her innocence, we may reasonably believe that the verdicts so arrived at were generally verdicts of acquittal. On many different occasions ecclesiastics who spoke with authority did their best to disabuse the people of their belief in witchcraft. This for instance is the general purport of the book, "Contra insulsam vulgi opinionem de grandine et tonitruis" (Against the foolish belief of the common sort concerning hail and thunder), written by Saint Agobard (d. 841), Archbishop of Lyons (P.L., CIV, 147). Still more to the point is the section of the work, "De ecclesiasticis disciplinis" ascribed to਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀㄀㈀㜀㄀㤀挀⸀栀琀洀㸀刀攀最椀渀漀 漀昀 倀爀☀甀甀洀氀㬀洀㰀⼀愀㸀 ⠀䄀⸀䐀⸀ 㤀 㘀⤀⸀ 䤀渀 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀 ㌀㘀㐀 眀攀 爀攀愀搀㨀 吀栀椀猀 愀氀猀漀 椀猀 渀漀琀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀愀猀猀攀搀 漀瘀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 ∀挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 愀戀愀渀搀漀渀攀搀 眀漀洀攀渀Ⰰ 琀甀爀渀椀渀最 愀猀椀搀攀 琀漀 昀漀氀氀漀眀 匀愀琀愀渀Ⰰ 戀攀椀渀最 猀攀搀甀挀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀猀 愀渀搀 瀀栀愀渀琀愀猀洀猀 漀昀 搀攀洀漀渀猀Ⰰ 戀攀氀椀攀瘀攀 愀渀搀 漀瀀攀渀氀礀 瀀爀漀昀攀猀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀攀愀搀 漀昀 渀椀最栀琀 琀栀攀礀 爀椀搀攀 甀瀀漀渀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 戀攀愀猀琀猀 愀氀漀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀愀最愀渀 最漀搀搀攀猀猀 䐀椀愀渀愀 愀渀搀 愀 挀漀甀渀琀氀攀猀猀 栀漀爀搀攀 漀昀 眀漀洀攀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 猀椀氀攀渀琀 栀漀甀爀猀 琀栀攀礀 昀氀礀 漀瘀攀爀 瘀愀猀琀 琀爀愀挀琀猀 漀昀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 愀渀搀 漀戀攀礀 栀攀爀 愀猀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀椀猀琀爀攀猀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 漀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 渀椀最栀琀猀 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 猀甀洀洀漀渀攀搀 琀漀 瀀愀礀 栀攀爀 栀漀洀愀最攀⸀∀ 䄀渀搀 琀栀攀渀 栀攀 最漀攀猀 漀渀 琀漀 爀攀洀愀爀欀 琀栀愀琀 椀昀 椀琀 眀攀爀攀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀攀 眀漀洀攀渀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 搀攀氀甀搀攀搀 椀琀 眀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 漀昀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 挀漀渀猀攀焀甀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 甀渀昀漀爀琀甀渀愀琀攀氀礀 愀渀 椀洀洀攀渀猀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 瀀攀漀瀀氀攀 ⠀㰀椀㸀椀渀渀甀洀攀爀愀 洀甀氀琀椀琀甀搀漀㰀⼀椀㸀⤀ 戀攀氀椀攀瘀攀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀 琀漀 戀攀 琀爀甀攀 愀渀搀 戀攀氀椀攀瘀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 搀攀瀀愀爀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 琀爀甀攀 䘀愀椀琀栀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 猀瀀攀愀欀椀渀最 琀栀攀礀 昀愀氀氀 椀渀琀漀 倀愀最愀渀椀猀洀⸀ 䄀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 栀攀 猀愀礀猀 ∀椀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀 搀甀琀礀 漀昀 瀀爀椀攀猀琀猀 攀愀爀渀攀猀琀氀礀 琀漀 椀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀 琀栀攀 瀀攀漀瀀氀攀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀 愀爀攀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀氀礀 甀渀琀爀甀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 猀甀挀栀 椀洀愀最椀渀椀渀最猀 愀爀攀 瀀氀愀渀琀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 洀椀渀搀猀 漀昀 洀椀猀戀攀氀椀攀瘀椀渀最 昀漀氀欀Ⰰ 渀漀琀 戀礀 愀 䐀椀瘀椀渀攀 猀瀀椀爀椀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 戀礀 琀栀攀 猀瀀椀爀椀琀 漀昀 攀瘀椀氀∀ ⠀倀⸀䰀⸀Ⰰ 䌀堀堀堀䤀䤀Ⰰ ㌀㔀㈀㬀 挀昀⸀ 椀戀椀搀⸀Ⰰ ㈀㠀㐀⤀⸀ 䤀琀 眀漀甀氀搀Ⰰ 愀猀 䠀愀渀猀攀渀 栀愀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 ⠀娀愀甀戀攀爀眀愀栀渀Ⰰ 瀀瀀⸀ 㠀㄀ⴀ㠀㈀⤀Ⰰ 戀攀 昀愀爀 琀漀漀 猀眀攀攀瀀椀渀最 愀 挀漀渀挀氀甀猀椀漀渀 琀漀 椀渀昀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 䌀愀爀氀漀瘀椀渀最椀愀渀 䌀栀甀爀挀栀 戀礀 琀栀椀猀 甀琀琀攀爀愀渀挀攀 瀀爀漀挀氀愀椀洀攀搀 椀琀猀 搀椀猀戀攀氀椀攀昀 椀渀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 瀀愀猀猀愀最攀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 瀀爀漀瘀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 爀攀最愀爀搀 琀漀 猀甀挀栀 洀愀琀琀攀爀猀 愀 猀愀渀攀爀 愀渀搀 洀漀爀攀 挀爀椀琀椀挀愀氀 猀瀀椀爀椀琀 栀愀搀 戀攀最甀渀 琀漀 瀀爀攀瘀愀椀氀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 挀氀攀爀最礀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀吀栀攀 ∀䐀攀挀爀攀琀甀洀∀ 漀昀 Burchard, Bishop of Worms (about 1020), and especially its 19th book, often known separately as the "Corrector", is another work of great importance. Burchard, or the teachers from whom he has compiled his treatise, still believes in some forms of witchcraft — in magical potions, for instance, which may produce impotence or਀㰀愀㸀愀戀漀爀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀⸀ 䈀甀琀 栀攀 愀氀琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 爀攀樀攀挀琀猀 琀栀攀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 洀愀渀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀愀爀瘀攀氀氀漀甀猀 瀀漀眀攀爀猀 眀椀琀栀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀爀氀礀 挀爀攀搀椀琀攀搀⸀ 匀甀挀栀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 眀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 渀漀挀琀甀爀渀愀氀 爀椀搀椀渀最 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 愀椀爀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀栀愀渀最椀渀最 漀昀 愀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀✀猀 搀椀猀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀 昀爀漀洀 氀漀瘀攀 琀漀 栀愀琀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀爀漀氀 漀昀 琀栀甀渀搀攀爀Ⰰ 爀愀椀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 猀甀渀猀栀椀渀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 琀爀愀渀猀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 洀愀渀 椀渀琀漀 愀渀 愀渀椀洀愀氀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀挀漀甀爀猀攀 漀昀 椀渀挀甀戀椀 愀渀搀 猀甀挀挀甀戀椀 眀椀琀栀 栀甀洀愀渀 戀攀椀渀最猀⸀ 一漀琀 漀渀氀礀 琀栀攀 愀琀琀攀洀瀀琀 琀漀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀猀攀 猀甀挀栀 琀栀椀渀最猀 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀礀 戀攀氀椀攀昀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 椀猀 琀爀攀愀琀攀搀 戀礀 栀椀洀 愀猀 愀 sin for which the confessor must require his penitent to do a serious assigned penance.਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㘀㜀㤀㄀挀⸀栀琀洀㸀䜀爀攀最漀爀礀 嘀䤀䤀㰀⼀愀㸀 椀渀 ㄀ 㠀  眀爀漀琀攀 琀漀 䬀椀渀最 䠀愀爀漀氀搀 漀昀 䐀攀渀洀愀爀欀 昀漀爀戀椀搀搀椀渀最 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀 put to death upon presumption of their having caused storms or failure of crops or pestilence. Neither were these the only examples of an effort to stem the tide of unjust suspicion to which these poor creatures were exposed. See for example the Weihenstephan case discussed by Weiland in the "Zeitschrift f. Kirchengesch.", IX, 592.਀

On the other hand, after the middle of the thirteenth century, the then recently-constituted਀㰀愀㸀倀愀瀀愀氀 䤀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 眀椀琀栀 挀栀愀爀最攀猀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀⸀ Alexander IV, indeed, ruled (1258) that the inquisitors should limit their intervention to those cases in which there was some clear presumption of heretical belief (manifeste haeresim saparent), but Hansen shows reason for supposing that heretical tendencies were very readily inferred from almost any sort of magical practices. Neither is this altogether surprising when we remember how freely the਀㰀愀㸀䌀愀琀栀愀爀椀㰀⼀愀㸀 瀀愀爀漀搀椀攀搀 䌀愀琀栀漀氀椀挀 爀椀琀甀愀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 ∀挀漀渀猀漀氀愀洀攀渀琀甀洀∀ 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 爀椀琀攀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 栀漀眀 攀愀猀椀氀礀 琀栀攀 䴀愀渀椀挀栀愀攀愀渀 搀甀愀氀椀猀洀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 猀礀猀琀攀洀 洀椀最栀琀 戀攀 椀渀琀攀爀瀀爀攀琀攀搀 愀猀 愀 栀漀洀愀最攀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀漀眀攀爀猀 漀昀 搀愀爀欀渀攀猀猀⸀ 䤀琀 眀愀猀 愀琀 愀渀礀 爀愀琀攀 愀琀 吀漀甀氀漀甀猀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀漀琀ⴀ戀攀搀 漀昀 䌀愀琀栀愀爀愀渀 椀渀昀攀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 琀栀愀琀 眀攀 洀攀攀琀 椀渀 ㄀㈀㜀㔀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀氀椀攀猀琀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 漀昀 愀 眀椀琀挀栀 戀甀爀渀攀搀 琀漀 搀攀愀琀栀 愀昀琀攀爀 樀甀搀椀挀椀愀氀 猀攀渀琀攀渀挀攀 漀昀 愀渀 椀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀漀爀Ⰰ 眀栀漀 眀愀猀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 挀愀猀攀 愀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 䠀甀最甀攀猀 搀攀 䈀愀渀椀漀氀 ⠀䌀愀甀稀漀渀猀Ⰰ ∀䰀愀 䴀愀最椀挀∀Ⰰ 䤀䤀Ⰰ ㈀㄀㜀⤀⸀ 吀栀攀 眀漀洀愀渀Ⰰ 瀀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 栀愀氀昀 crazy, "confessed" to having brought forth a monster after intercourse with an evil spirit and to having nourished it with babies' flesh which she procured in her nocturnal expeditions. The possibility of such carnal intercourse between human beings and demons was unfortunately accepted by some of the great਀㰀愀㸀猀挀栀漀漀氀洀攀渀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 攀瘀攀渀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 戀礀 St. Thomas Aquinas and਀㰀愀㸀匀琀⸀ 䈀漀渀愀瘀攀渀琀甀爀攀㰀⼀愀㸀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀一攀瘀攀爀琀栀攀氀攀猀猀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 琀栀攀 䌀栀甀爀挀栀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀愀猀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 愀 猀琀爀漀渀最 挀漀洀洀漀渀ⴀ猀攀渀猀攀 爀攀愀挀琀椀漀渀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 琀栀椀猀 琀栀攀漀爀椀稀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀 爀攀愀挀琀椀漀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 洀漀爀攀 攀猀瀀攀挀椀愀氀氀礀 洀愀渀椀昀攀猀琀攀搀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀昀攀猀猀椀漀渀 洀愀渀甀愀氀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀椀昀琀攀攀渀琀栀 挀攀渀琀甀爀礀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 眀攀爀攀 氀愀爀最攀氀礀 挀漀洀瀀椀氀攀搀 戀礀 洀攀渀 眀栀漀 眀攀爀攀 椀渀 愀挀琀甀愀氀 挀漀渀琀愀挀琀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀攀漀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀栀漀 爀攀愀氀椀稀攀搀 琀栀攀 栀愀爀洀 攀昀昀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 攀砀琀爀愀瘀愀最愀渀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 superstitious beliefs. Stephen Lanzkranna, for instance, treated the belief in women who rode about at night, hobgoblins, were-wolves, and "other such heathen nonsensical impostures", as one of the greatest of sins. Moreover this common-sense influence was a powerful one. Speaking of the synods held in Bavaria, so unfriendly a witness as Riezler (Hexenprozesse in Bayern, p. 32) declares that "among the official representatives of the Church this healthier tendency remained the prevalent one down to the threshold of the witch-trial epidemic, that is until far on in the sixteenth century". Even as late as the Salzburg Provincial Synod of 1569 (Dalham, "Concillia Salisburgensia", p. 372), we find indication of a strong tendency to prevent as far as possible the imposition of the਀㰀愀㸀搀攀愀琀栀 瀀攀渀愀氀琀礀㰀⼀愀㸀 椀渀 挀愀猀攀猀 漀昀 爀攀瀀甀琀攀搀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀Ⰰ 戀礀 椀渀猀椀猀琀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀栀椀渀最猀 眀攀爀攀 搀椀愀戀漀氀椀挀愀氀 椀氀氀甀猀椀漀渀猀⸀ 匀琀椀氀氀 琀栀攀爀攀 挀愀渀 戀攀 渀漀 搀漀甀戀琀 琀栀愀琀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 昀漀甀爀琀攀攀渀琀栀 挀攀渀琀甀爀礀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 瀀愀瀀愀氀 挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 John XXII and Benedict XII (see Hansen, "Quellen und Untersuchungen", pp. 2-15) did very much to stimulate the prosecution by the inquisitors of witches and others engaged in magical practices, especially in the south of France. In a witch trial on a large scale carried on at Toulouse in 1334, out of sixty-three persons accused of offences of this kind, eight were handed over to the secular arm to be burned and the rest were imprisoned either for life or for a long term of years. Two of the condemned, both elderly women, after repeated application of torture, confessed that they had assisted at witches' sabbaths, had there worshipped the Devil, had been guilty of indecencies with him and with the other persons present, and had eaten the flesh of infants whom they had carried off by night from their nurses (Hansen, "Zauberwahn", 315; and "Quellen und Untersuchungen", 451). In 1324 Petronilla de Midia was burnt at Kilkenny in Ireland at the instance of Richard, Bishop of Ossory; but analogous cases in the British Isles seem to have been very rare. During this period the secular courts proceeded against witchcraft with equal or even greater severity than the ecclesiastical tribunals, and here also torture was employed and burning at the stake. Fire was the punishment juridically appointed for this offence in the secular codes known as the "Sachsenspiegel" (1225) and the "Schwabenspiegel" (1275). Indeed during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries no prosecutions for witchcraft are known to have been undertaken in Germany by the papal inquisitors. About the year 1400 we find wholesale witch-prosecutions being carried out at਀㰀愀㸀䈀攀爀渀攀㰀⼀愀㸀 椀渀 匀眀椀琀稀攀爀氀愀渀搀 戀礀 倀攀琀攀爀 搀攀 䜀爀甀礀☀攀最爀愀瘀攀㬀爀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀漀Ⰰ 搀攀猀瀀椀琀攀 琀栀攀 愀猀猀攀爀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 刀椀攀稀氀攀爀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 甀渀焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀愀戀氀礀 愀 猀攀挀甀氀愀爀 樀甀搀最攀 ⠀猀攀攀 䠀愀渀猀攀渀Ⰰ ∀儀甀攀氀氀攀渀Ⰰ 攀琀挀⸀∀Ⰰ 㤀㄀ 渀⸀⤀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 挀愀洀瀀愀椀最渀猀 ☀⌀㄀㔀㄀㬀 昀漀爀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 嘀愀氀愀椀猀 ⠀㄀㐀㈀㠀ⴀ㄀㐀㌀㐀⤀ 眀栀攀渀 ㈀   眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 瀀甀琀 琀漀 搀攀愀琀栀Ⰰ 漀爀 愀琀 䈀爀椀愀渀挀漀渀 椀渀 ㄀㐀㌀㜀 眀栀攀渀 漀瘀攀爀 ㄀㔀  猀甀昀昀攀爀攀搀Ⰰ 猀漀洀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀洀 戀礀 搀爀漀眀渀椀渀最 ☀⌀㄀㔀㄀㬀 眀攀爀攀 挀愀爀爀椀攀搀 漀渀 戀礀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀甀氀愀爀 挀漀甀爀琀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 瘀椀挀琀椀洀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀漀爀猀Ⰰ 攀⸀最⸀ 愀琀 䠀攀椀搀攀氀戀攀爀最 椀渀 ㄀㐀㐀㜀㬀 漀爀 椀渀 匀愀瘀漀礀 椀渀 ㄀㐀㘀㈀Ⰰ 搀漀 渀漀琀 猀攀攀洀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 焀甀椀琀攀 猀漀 渀甀洀攀爀漀甀猀⸀ 䤀渀 䘀爀愀渀挀攀 愀琀 琀栀椀猀 瀀攀爀椀漀搀 琀栀攀 挀爀椀洀攀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 眀愀猀 昀爀攀焀甀攀渀琀氀礀 搀攀猀椀最渀愀琀攀搀 愀猀 ∀嘀愀甀搀攀爀椀攀∀ 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 猀漀洀攀 挀漀渀昀甀猀椀漀渀 猀攀攀洀椀渀最氀礀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 昀漀氀氀漀眀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 栀攀爀攀琀椀挀Ⰰ 倀攀琀攀爀 圀愀氀搀攀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀椀猀 挀漀渀昀甀猀椀漀渀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 猀漀爀挀攀爀礀 愀渀搀 愀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 昀漀爀洀 漀昀 栀攀爀攀猀礀 眀愀猀 甀渀昀漀爀琀甀渀愀琀攀氀礀 戀漀甀渀搀 琀漀 戀爀椀渀最 愀 猀琀椀氀氀 氀愀爀最攀爀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀猀 甀渀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 樀攀愀氀漀甀猀 猀挀爀甀琀椀渀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 椀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀漀爀猀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀䤀琀 眀椀氀氀 戀攀 爀攀愀搀椀氀礀 甀渀搀攀爀猀琀漀漀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀攀最漀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀挀攀 愀琀琀愀挀栀攀搀 戀礀 洀愀渀礀 漀氀搀攀爀 眀爀椀琀攀爀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䈀甀氀氀Ⰰ ∀匀甀洀洀椀猀 搀攀猀椀搀攀爀愀渀琀攀猀 愀昀昀攀挀琀椀戀甀猀∀Ⰰ 漀昀 Pope Innocent VIII (1484), as though this papal document were responsible for the witch mania of the two succeeding centuries, is altogether illusory. Not only had an active campaign against most forms of sorcery already been going on for a long period, but in the matter of procedure, of punishments, of judges, etc.,਀㰀愀㸀䤀渀渀漀挀攀渀琀✀猀㰀⼀愀㸀 䈀甀氀氀 攀渀愀挀琀攀搀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 渀攀眀⸀ 䤀琀猀 搀椀爀攀挀琀 瀀甀爀瀀漀爀琀 眀愀猀 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 琀漀 爀愀琀椀昀礀 琀栀攀 瀀漀眀攀爀猀 愀氀爀攀愀搀礀 挀漀渀昀攀爀爀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 䠀攀渀爀礀 䤀渀猀琀椀琀漀爀椀猀 愀渀搀 䨀愀洀攀猀 匀瀀爀攀渀最攀爀Ⰰ 椀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀漀爀猀Ⰰ 琀漀 搀攀愀氀 眀椀琀栀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀猀 漀昀 攀瘀攀爀礀 挀氀愀猀猀 愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 攀瘀攀爀礀 昀漀爀洀 漀昀 挀爀椀洀攀 ⠀昀漀爀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 眀椀琀栀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 栀攀爀攀猀礀⤀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 䈀椀猀栀漀瀀 漀昀 匀琀爀愀猀戀甀爀最 琀漀 氀攀渀搀 琀栀攀 椀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀漀爀猀 愀氀氀 瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀䤀渀搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀Ⰰ 栀漀眀攀瘀攀爀Ⰰ 戀礀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀礀椀渀最 琀栀攀 攀瘀椀氀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀猀 挀栀愀爀最攀搀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 ☀⌀㄀㔀㄀㬀 昀漀爀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀挀漀甀爀猀攀 眀椀琀栀 椀渀挀甀戀椀 愀渀搀 猀甀挀挀甀戀椀Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 椀渀琀攀爀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 瀀愀爀琀甀爀椀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 眀漀洀攀渀 愀渀搀 愀渀椀洀愀氀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 搀愀洀愀最攀 琀栀攀礀 搀椀搀 琀漀 挀愀琀琀氀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 昀爀甀椀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀愀爀琀栀Ⰰ 琀栀攀椀爀 瀀漀眀攀爀 愀渀搀 洀愀氀椀挀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 椀渀昀氀椀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 瀀愀椀渀 愀渀搀 搀椀猀攀愀猀攀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 栀椀渀搀爀愀渀挀攀 挀愀甀猀攀搀 琀漀 洀攀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀椀爀 挀漀渀樀甀最愀氀 爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀✀ 爀攀瀀甀搀椀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 昀愀椀琀栀 漀昀 琀栀攀椀爀 戀愀瀀琀椀猀洀 ☀⌀㄀㔀㄀㬀 琀栀攀 瀀漀瀀攀 洀甀猀琀 渀漀 搀漀甀戀琀 戀攀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀攀搀 琀漀 愀昀昀椀爀洀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 愀氀氀攀最攀搀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀⸀ 䈀甀琀Ⰰ 愀猀 攀瘀攀渀 䠀愀渀猀攀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀 漀甀琀 ⠀娀愀甀戀攀爀眀愀栀渀Ⰰ 㐀㘀㠀Ⰰ 渀⸀ ㌀⤀ ∀椀琀 椀猀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀氀礀 漀戀瘀椀漀甀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 䈀甀氀氀 瀀爀漀渀漀甀渀挀攀猀 渀漀 搀漀最洀愀琀椀挀 搀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀∀㬀 渀攀椀琀栀攀爀 搀漀攀猀 琀栀攀 昀漀爀洀 猀甀最最攀猀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀瀀攀 眀椀猀栀攀猀 琀漀 戀椀渀搀 愀渀礀漀渀攀 琀漀 戀攀氀椀攀瘀攀 洀漀爀攀 愀戀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 琀栀愀渀 椀猀 椀渀瘀漀氀瘀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 甀琀琀攀爀愀渀挀攀猀 漀昀 䠀漀氀礀 匀挀爀椀瀀琀甀爀攀⸀ 倀爀漀戀愀戀氀礀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 搀椀猀愀猀琀爀漀甀猀 攀瀀椀猀漀搀攀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 瀀甀戀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀 愀 礀攀愀爀 漀爀 琀眀漀 氀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 戀礀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 椀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀漀爀猀Ⰰ 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀漀漀欀 ∀䴀愀氀氀攀甀猀 䴀愀氀攀昀椀挀愀爀甀洀∀ ⠀琀栀攀 栀愀洀洀攀爀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀⤀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 眀漀爀欀 椀猀 搀椀瘀椀搀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 琀栀爀攀攀 瀀愀爀琀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 昀椀爀猀琀 琀眀漀 漀昀 眀栀椀挀栀 搀攀愀氀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 爀攀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 愀猀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 䈀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 攀琀挀⸀Ⰰ 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 椀琀猀 渀愀琀甀爀攀 愀渀搀 栀漀爀爀漀爀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀愀渀渀攀爀 漀昀 搀攀愀氀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 椀琀Ⰰ 眀栀椀氀攀 琀栀攀 琀栀椀爀搀 氀愀礀猀 搀漀眀渀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀 爀甀氀攀猀 昀漀爀 瀀爀漀挀攀搀甀爀攀 眀栀攀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 琀爀椀愀氀 戀攀 挀漀渀搀甀挀琀攀搀 椀渀 愀渀 攀挀挀氀攀猀椀愀猀琀椀挀愀氀 漀爀 愀 猀攀挀甀氀愀爀 挀漀甀爀琀⸀ 吀栀攀爀攀 挀愀渀 戀攀 渀漀 搀漀甀戀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 戀漀漀欀Ⰰ 漀眀椀渀最 琀漀 椀琀猀 爀攀瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀椀渀琀椀渀最 瀀爀攀猀猀Ⰰ 攀砀攀爀挀椀猀攀搀 最爀攀愀琀 椀渀昀氀甀攀渀挀攀⸀ 䤀琀 挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀搀Ⰰ 椀渀搀攀攀搀Ⰰ 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 眀愀猀 渀攀眀⸀ 吀栀攀 ∀䘀漀爀洀椀挀愀爀椀猀∀ 漀昀 䨀漀栀渀 一椀搀攀爀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 栀愀搀 戀攀攀渀 眀爀椀琀琀攀渀 渀攀愀爀氀礀 昀椀昀琀礀 礀攀愀爀猀 攀愀爀氀椀攀爀Ⰰ 攀砀栀椀戀椀琀猀 樀甀猀琀 愀猀 椀渀琀椀洀愀琀攀 愀 欀渀漀眀氀攀搀最攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 瀀栀攀渀漀洀攀渀愀 漀昀 猀漀爀挀攀爀礀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 ∀䴀愀氀氀攀甀猀∀ 瀀爀漀昀攀猀猀攀搀 ⠀椀渀 瀀愀爀琀 昀爀愀甀搀甀氀攀渀琀氀礀⤀ 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 愀瀀瀀爀漀瘀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 唀渀椀瘀攀爀猀椀琀礀 漀昀 䌀漀氀漀最渀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 眀愀猀 猀攀渀猀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀琀椀最洀愀 椀琀 愀琀琀愀挀栀攀搀 琀漀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 愀猀 愀 眀漀爀猀攀 挀爀椀洀攀 琀栀愀渀 heresy and in its notable animus against the female sex. The subject at once began to attract attention even in the world of letters. Ulrich Molitoris a year or two later published a work, "De Lamiis", which, though disagreeing with the more extravagant of the representations made in the "Malleus", did not question the existence of witches. Other divines and popular preachers joined in the discussion, and, though many voices were raised on the side of common sense, the publicity thus given to these matters inflamed the popular imagination. Certainly the immediate effects of਀㰀愀㸀䤀渀渀漀挀攀渀琀 嘀䤀䤀䤀✀猀㰀⼀愀㸀 䈀甀氀氀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 最爀攀愀琀氀礀 攀砀愀最最攀爀愀琀攀搀⸀ 䤀渀猀琀椀琀漀爀椀猀 猀琀愀爀琀攀搀 愀 眀椀琀挀栀 挀愀洀瀀愀椀最渀 愀琀 䤀渀渀猀戀爀甀挀欀 椀渀 ㄀㐀㠀㔀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 栀攀爀攀 栀椀猀 瀀爀漀挀攀搀甀爀攀 眀愀猀 猀攀瘀攀爀攀氀礀 挀爀椀琀椀挀椀猀攀搀 愀渀搀 爀攀猀椀猀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 䈀椀猀栀漀瀀 漀昀 Brixen (see Janssen, "Hist. of Germ. People", Eng. tr., XVI, 249-251). So far as the papal inquisitors were concerned, the Bull, especially in Germany, heralded the close rather than the commencement of their activity. The witch-trials of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were for the most part in secular hands.਀

One fact which is absolutely certain is that, so far as਀㰀愀㸀䰀甀琀栀攀爀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ Calvin, and their followers were concerned, the popular belief in the power of the Devil as exercised through witchcraft and other magic practices was developed beyond all measure. Naturally਀㰀愀㸀䰀甀琀栀攀爀㰀⼀愀㸀 搀椀搀 渀漀琀 愀瀀瀀攀愀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 瀀愀瀀愀氀 䈀甀氀氀⸀ 䠀攀 氀漀漀欀攀搀 漀渀氀礀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䈀椀戀氀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀琀 眀愀猀 椀渀 瘀椀爀琀甀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䈀椀戀氀椀挀愀氀 挀漀洀洀愀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 愀搀瘀漀挀愀琀攀搀 琀栀攀 攀砀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 渀漀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 䨀愀渀猀猀攀渀✀猀 ∀䠀椀猀琀漀爀礀∀ 椀猀 洀漀爀攀 甀渀愀渀猀眀攀爀愀戀氀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀栀攀 昀漀甀爀琀栀 愀渀搀 昀椀昀琀栀 挀栀愀瀀琀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 瘀漀氀甀洀攀 ⠀瘀漀氀⸀ 堀嘀䤀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀 攀搀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 栀攀 愀琀琀爀椀戀甀琀攀猀 愀 氀愀爀最攀Ⰰ 椀昀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 最爀攀愀琀攀爀Ⰰ 猀栀愀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀瀀漀渀猀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀 洀愀渀椀愀 琀漀 琀栀攀 刀攀昀漀爀洀攀爀猀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀吀栀攀 瀀攀渀愀氀 挀漀搀攀 欀渀漀眀渀 愀猀 琀栀攀 䌀愀爀漀氀椀渀愀 ⠀㄀㔀㌀㈀⤀ 搀攀挀爀攀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 猀漀爀挀攀爀礀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀漀甀琀 琀栀攀 䜀攀爀洀愀渀 攀洀瀀椀爀攀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 琀爀攀愀琀攀搀 愀猀 愀 挀爀椀洀椀渀愀氀 漀昀昀攀渀挀攀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 椀昀 椀琀 瀀甀爀瀀漀爀琀攀搀 琀漀 椀渀昀氀椀挀琀 椀渀樀甀爀礀 甀瀀漀渀 愀渀礀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀 眀愀猀 琀漀 戀攀 戀甀爀渀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀欀攀⸀ 䤀渀 ㄀㔀㜀㈀ 䄀甀最甀猀琀甀猀 漀昀 匀愀砀漀渀礀 椀洀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀栀攀 瀀攀渀愀氀琀礀 漀昀 戀甀爀渀椀渀最 昀漀爀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 漀昀 攀瘀攀爀礀 欀椀渀搀Ⰰ 椀渀挀氀甀搀椀渀最 猀椀洀瀀氀攀 昀漀爀琀甀渀攀琀攀氀氀椀渀最⸀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 眀栀漀氀攀Ⰰ 最爀攀愀琀攀爀 愀挀琀椀瘀椀琀礀 椀渀 栀甀渀琀椀渀最 搀漀眀渀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 眀愀猀 猀栀漀眀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀 Protestant districts of Germany than in the Catholic provinces. Striking examples are given by Janssen. In Osnabruck, in 1583, 121 persons were burned in three months. At Wolfenbuttenl in 1593 as many as ten witches were often burned in one day. It was not until 1563 that any effective resistance to the persecution began to be offered. This came first from a਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀㄀㈀㐀㤀㔀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀倀爀漀琀攀猀琀愀渀琀㰀⼀愀㸀 漀昀 䌀氀攀甀攀猀Ⰰ 䨀漀栀渀 圀攀礀攀爀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 瀀爀漀琀攀猀琀猀 眀攀爀攀 猀栀漀爀琀氀礀 愀昀琀攀爀眀愀爀搀猀 瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀攀渀猀攀 戀礀 䔀眀椀挀栀 愀渀搀 圀椀琀攀欀椀渀搀⸀ 伀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀愀渀搀Ⰰ 䨀攀愀渀 䈀漀搀椀渀Ⰰ 愀 French Protestant lawyer, replied to Weyer in 1580 with much asperity, and in 1589 the Catholic Bishop Binsfeld and Father Delrio, a਀㰀愀㸀䨀攀猀甀椀琀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 眀爀漀琀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 猀椀搀攀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 䐀攀氀爀椀漀 眀椀猀栀攀搀 琀漀 洀椀琀椀最愀琀攀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀爀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀 琀爀椀愀氀猀 愀渀搀 搀攀渀漀甀渀挀攀搀 琀栀攀 攀砀挀攀猀猀椀瘀攀 甀猀攀 漀昀 琀漀爀琀甀爀攀⸀ 䈀漀搀椀渀✀猀 戀漀漀欀 眀愀猀 愀渀猀眀攀爀攀搀 愀洀漀渀最猀琀 漀琀栀攀爀猀 戀礀 琀栀攀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀洀愀渀 刀攀最椀渀愀氀搀 匀挀漀琀琀 椀渀 栀椀猀 ∀䐀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀椀攀 漀昀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀∀ ⠀㄀㔀㠀㐀⤀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀椀猀 愀渀猀眀攀爀 眀愀猀 漀爀搀攀爀攀搀 琀漀 戀攀 戀甀爀渀攀搀 戀礀 䨀愀洀攀猀 䤀Ⰰ 眀栀漀 爀攀瀀氀椀攀搀 琀漀 椀琀 椀渀 栀椀猀 ∀䐀愀攀洀漀渀漀氀漀最椀攀∀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀倀攀爀栀愀瀀猀 琀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 攀昀昀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 瀀爀漀琀攀猀琀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀搀攀 漀昀 栀甀洀愀渀椀琀礀 愀渀搀 攀渀氀椀最栀琀攀渀洀攀渀琀 眀愀猀 漀昀昀攀爀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 Jesuit਀㰀愀㸀䘀爀椀攀搀爀椀挀栀 瘀漀渀 匀瀀攀攀㰀⼀愀㸀Ⰰ 眀栀漀 椀渀 ㄀㘀㌀㄀ 瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 栀椀猀 ∀䌀愀甀琀椀漀 挀爀椀洀椀渀愀氀椀猀∀ 愀渀搀 眀栀漀 昀漀甀最栀琀 愀最愀椀渀猀琀 琀栀攀 挀爀愀稀攀 戀礀 攀瘀攀爀礀 洀攀愀渀猀 椀渀 栀椀猀 瀀漀眀攀爀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 挀爀甀攀氀 瀀攀爀猀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 攀砀琀攀渀搀攀搀 琀漀 愀氀氀 瀀愀爀琀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀砀琀攀攀渀琀栀 挀攀渀琀甀爀礀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀攀爀攀 挀愀猀攀猀 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 挀漀渀搀攀洀渀攀搀 戀礀 氀愀礀 琀爀椀戀甀渀愀氀猀 愀渀搀 戀甀爀渀攀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 椀洀洀攀搀椀愀琀攀 渀攀椀最栀戀漀甀爀栀漀漀搀 漀昀 刀漀洀攀⸀ Pope Gregory XV, however, in his Constitution, "omnipotentis" (1623), recommended a milder procedure, and in 1657 an Instruction of the਀㰀愀㸀䤀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 攀昀昀攀挀琀椀瘀攀 爀攀洀漀渀猀琀爀愀渀挀攀猀 琀漀 戀攀愀爀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀爀甀攀氀琀礀 猀栀漀眀渀 椀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 瀀爀漀猀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䔀渀最氀愀渀搀 愀渀搀 匀挀漀琀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 漀昀 挀漀甀爀猀攀Ⰰ 眀攀爀攀 戀礀 渀漀 洀攀愀渀猀 攀砀攀洀瀀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 攀瀀椀搀攀洀椀挀 漀昀 挀爀甀攀氀琀礀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 渀漀琀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 戀甀爀渀攀搀⸀ 䄀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 攀砀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀猀 椀渀 䜀爀攀愀琀 䈀爀椀琀愀椀渀 椀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 椀洀瀀漀猀猀椀戀氀攀 琀漀 昀漀爀洀 愀渀礀 猀愀昀攀 攀猀琀椀洀愀琀攀⸀ 伀渀攀 猀琀愀琀攀洀攀渀琀 搀攀挀氀愀爀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 ㌀ Ⰰ   Ⰰ 愀渀漀琀栀攀爀 琀栀愀琀 ㌀   Ⰰ 眀攀爀攀 栀愀渀最攀搀 椀渀 䔀渀最氀愀渀搀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 爀甀氀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 倀愀爀氀椀愀洀攀渀琀 ⠀一漀琀攀猀琀攀椀渀Ⰰ 漀瀀⸀ 挀椀琀⸀ 椀渀昀爀愀Ⰰ 瀀⸀ ㄀㤀㐀⤀⸀ 匀琀攀愀爀渀攀 琀栀攀 眀椀琀挀栀昀椀渀搀攀爀 戀漀愀猀琀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 栀攀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀愀氀氀礀 欀渀攀眀 漀昀 ㈀   攀砀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 䠀漀眀攀氀氀Ⰰ 眀爀椀琀椀渀最 椀渀 ㄀㘀㐀㠀Ⰰ 猀愀礀猀 琀栀愀琀 眀椀琀栀椀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀愀猀猀 漀昀 琀眀漀 礀攀愀爀猀 渀攀愀爀 甀瀀漀渀 ㌀   眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 眀攀爀攀 愀爀爀愀椀最渀攀搀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀愀樀漀爀 瀀愀爀琀 攀砀攀挀甀琀攀搀Ⰰ 椀渀 䔀猀猀攀砀 愀渀搀 匀甀昀昀漀氀欀 漀渀氀礀 ⠀椀戀椀搀⸀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㔀⤀⸀ 䤀渀 匀挀漀琀氀愀渀搀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 氀愀挀欀 漀昀 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀猀⸀ 䄀 挀愀爀攀昀甀氀 愀爀琀椀挀氀攀 戀礀 䰀攀最最攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 ∀匀挀漀琀琀椀猀栀 刀攀瘀椀攀眀∀ ⠀伀挀琀⸀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㄀⤀ 攀猀琀椀洀愀琀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀椀砀琀攀攀渀琀栀 愀渀搀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀攀攀渀琀栀 挀攀渀琀甀爀椀攀猀 ∀㌀㐀   瀀攀爀猀漀渀猀 瀀攀爀椀猀栀攀搀∀⸀ 䘀漀爀 愀 猀洀愀氀氀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀琀椀漀渀 猀甀挀栀 愀猀 琀栀愀琀 漀昀 匀挀漀琀氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 琀栀椀猀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 椀猀 攀渀漀爀洀漀甀猀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 洀愀渀礀 愀甀琀栀漀爀椀琀椀攀猀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 挀漀渀昀攀猀猀攀搀氀礀 漀渀氀礀 最甀攀猀猀椀渀最Ⰰ 栀愀瘀攀 最椀瘀攀渀 愀 洀甀挀栀 栀椀最栀攀爀 攀猀琀椀洀愀琀攀⸀ 䔀瘀攀渀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 攀砀攀洀瀀琀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀椀猀 瀀氀愀最甀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 眀攀氀氀ⴀ欀渀漀眀渀 䌀漀琀琀漀渀 䴀愀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 栀椀猀 ∀圀漀渀搀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䤀渀瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 圀漀爀氀搀∀ ⠀㄀㘀㤀㌀⤀Ⰰ 最椀瘀攀猀 愀渀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀 漀昀 ㄀㤀 攀砀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀攀猀 椀渀 一攀眀 䔀渀最氀愀渀搀Ⰰ 眀栀攀爀攀 漀渀攀 瀀漀漀爀 挀爀攀愀琀甀爀攀 眀愀猀 瀀爀攀猀猀攀搀 琀漀 搀攀愀琀栀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀䤀渀 洀漀搀攀爀渀 琀椀洀攀猀Ⰰ 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀戀氀攀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 最椀瘀攀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 戀礀 䠀攀砀栀愀洀 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀猀⸀ 䄀琀 琀栀攀 攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀攀瘀攀渀琀攀攀渀琀栀 挀攀渀琀甀爀礀 琀栀攀 瀀攀爀猀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀 愀氀洀漀猀琀 攀瘀攀爀礀眀栀攀爀攀 戀攀最愀渀 琀漀 猀氀愀挀欀攀渀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 攀愀爀氀礀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀椀最栀琀攀攀渀琀栀 椀琀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 挀攀愀猀攀搀⸀ 吀漀爀琀甀爀攀 眀愀猀 愀戀漀氀椀猀栀攀搀 椀渀 倀爀甀猀猀椀愀 椀渀 ㄀㜀㔀㐀Ⰰ 椀渀 䈀愀瘀愀爀椀愀 椀渀 ㄀㠀 㜀Ⰰ 椀渀 䠀愀渀漀瘀攀爀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㈀㈀⸀ 吀栀攀 氀愀猀琀 琀爀椀愀氀 昀漀爀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 椀渀 䜀攀爀洀愀渀礀 眀愀猀 椀渀 ㄀㜀㐀㤀 愀琀 Würzburg, but in Switzerland a girl was executed for this offence in the਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀㄀㈀㐀㤀㔀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀倀爀漀琀攀猀琀愀渀琀㰀⼀愀㸀 䌀愀渀琀漀渀 漀昀 䜀氀愀爀甀猀 椀渀 ㄀㜀㠀㌀⸀ 吀栀攀爀攀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 戀攀 渀漀 攀瘀椀搀攀渀挀攀 琀漀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀 琀栀攀 愀氀氀攀最愀琀椀漀渀 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 洀愀搀攀 琀栀愀琀 眀漀洀攀渀 猀甀猀瀀攀挀琀攀搀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 眀攀爀攀 昀漀爀洀愀氀氀礀 琀爀椀攀搀 愀渀搀 瀀甀琀 琀漀 搀攀愀琀栀 椀渀 Mexico late in the nineteenth century (see Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, XXXII, 1887, p. 378).਀

The question of the reality of witchcraft is one upon which it is not easy to pass a confident judgment. In the face of਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 ㈀㔀㐀㌀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀䠀漀氀礀 匀挀爀椀瀀琀甀爀攀㰀⼀愀㸀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 琀攀愀挀栀椀渀最 漀昀 琀栀攀 Fathers and theologians the abstract possibility of a pact with the਀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀 㐀㜀㘀㐀愀⸀栀琀洀㸀䐀攀瘀椀氀㰀⼀愀㸀 愀渀搀 漀昀 愀 搀椀愀戀漀氀椀挀愀氀 椀渀琀攀爀昀攀爀攀渀挀攀 椀渀 栀甀洀愀渀 愀昀昀愀椀爀猀 挀愀渀 栀愀爀搀氀礀 戀攀 搀攀渀椀攀搀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 渀漀 漀渀攀 挀愀渀 爀攀愀搀 琀栀攀 氀椀琀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀甀戀樀攀挀琀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 爀攀愀氀椀稀椀渀最 琀栀攀 愀眀昀甀氀 挀爀甀攀氀琀椀攀猀 琀漀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀椀猀 戀攀氀椀攀昀 愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 戀攀椀渀最 挀漀渀瘀椀渀挀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 㤀㤀 挀愀猀攀猀 漀甀琀 漀昀 ㄀   琀栀攀 愀氀氀攀最愀琀椀漀渀猀 爀攀猀琀 甀瀀漀渀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 瀀甀爀攀 搀攀氀甀猀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 戀攀眀椀氀搀攀爀椀渀最 挀椀爀挀甀洀猀琀愀渀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 愀 氀愀爀最攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 眀椀琀挀栀 瀀爀漀猀攀挀甀琀椀漀渀猀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀昀攀猀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瘀椀挀琀椀洀猀Ⰰ 漀昀琀攀渀 椀渀瘀漀氀瘀椀渀最 愀氀氀 欀椀渀搀猀 漀昀 猀愀琀愀渀椀猀琀椀挀 栀漀爀爀漀爀猀Ⰰ 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 洀愀搀攀 猀瀀漀渀琀愀渀攀漀甀猀氀礀 愀渀搀 愀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 眀椀琀栀漀甀琀 琀栀爀攀愀琀 漀爀 昀攀愀爀 漀昀 琀漀爀琀甀爀攀⸀ 䄀氀猀漀 琀栀攀 昀甀氀氀 愀搀洀椀猀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 最甀椀氀琀 猀攀攀洀猀 挀漀渀猀琀愀渀琀氀礀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 戀攀攀渀 挀漀渀昀椀爀洀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀挀愀昀昀漀氀搀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 瀀漀漀爀 猀甀昀昀攀爀攀搀 栀愀搀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 琀漀 最愀椀渀 漀爀 氀漀猀攀 戀礀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀昀攀猀猀椀漀渀⸀ 伀渀攀 挀愀渀 漀渀氀礀 爀攀挀漀爀搀 琀栀攀 昀愀挀琀 愀猀 愀 瀀猀礀挀栀漀氀漀最椀挀愀氀 瀀爀漀戀氀攀洀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀甀琀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 猀愀洀攀 琀攀渀搀攀渀挀礀 猀攀攀洀猀 琀漀 洀愀渀椀昀攀猀琀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 椀渀 漀琀栀攀爀 猀椀洀椀氀愀爀 挀愀猀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 洀漀猀琀 爀攀洀愀爀欀愀戀氀攀 椀渀猀琀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 瀀攀爀栀愀瀀猀Ⰰ 椀猀 漀渀攀 洀攀渀琀椀漀渀攀搀 戀礀 匀琀⸀ 䄀最漀戀愀爀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀 渀椀渀琀栀 挀攀渀琀甀爀礀 ⠀倀⸀䰀⸀Ⰰ 䌀䤀嘀Ⰰ ㄀㔀㠀⤀⸀ 䄀 挀攀爀琀愀椀渀 䜀爀椀洀愀氀搀甀猀Ⰰ 䐀甀欀攀 漀昀 䈀攀渀攀瘀攀渀琀甀洀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 愀挀挀甀猀攀搀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 瀀愀渀椀挀 攀渀最攀渀搀攀爀攀搀 戀礀 愀 瀀氀愀最甀攀 琀栀愀琀 眀愀猀 搀攀猀琀爀漀礀椀渀最 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 挀愀琀琀氀攀Ⰰ 漀昀 猀攀渀搀椀渀最 洀攀渀 漀甀琀 眀椀琀栀 瀀漀椀猀漀渀攀搀 搀甀猀琀 琀漀 猀瀀爀攀愀搀 椀渀昀攀挀琀椀漀渀 愀洀漀渀最 琀栀攀 昀氀漀挀欀猀 愀渀搀 栀攀爀搀猀⸀ 吀栀攀猀攀 洀攀渀Ⰰ 眀栀攀渀 愀爀爀攀猀琀攀搀 愀渀搀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀攀搀Ⰰ 瀀攀爀猀椀猀琀攀搀Ⰰ 猀愀礀猀 䄀最漀戀愀爀搀Ⰰ 椀渀 愀昀昀椀爀洀椀渀最 琀栀攀椀爀 最甀椀氀琀Ⰰ 琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 愀戀猀甀爀搀椀琀礀 眀愀猀 瀀愀琀攀渀琀⸀ ਀㰀瀀㸀㰀昀漀渀琀 猀椀稀攀㴀ⴀ㈀㸀䨀䄀一䄀匀匀䔀一ⴀ倀䄀匀吀伀刀Ⰰ 䜀攀猀挀栀⸀ 搀攀猀 搀攀甀琀猀挀栀攀渀 嘀漀氀欀攀猀Ⰰ 嘀䤀䤀䤀Ⰰ 琀爀⸀ 堀嘀䤀 ⠀䘀爀攀椀戀甀爀最Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㠀⤀㬀 䐀䤀䔀䘀䔀一䈀䄀䌀䠀 椀渀 圀攀琀稀攀爀 甀渀搀 圀攀氀氀攀Ⰰ 䬀椀爀挀栀攀渀氀攀砀椀欀漀渀Ⰰ 猀⸀ 瘀⸀ 䠀攀砀攀渀瀀爀漀稀攀猀猀㬀 匀伀䰀䐀䄀一ⴀ䠀䔀倀倀䔀Ⰰ 最攀猀挀栀⸀ 搀攀爀 䠀攀砀攀渀瀀爀漀稀攀猀猀攀渀 ⠀㈀ 瘀漀氀猀⸀Ⰰ 匀琀甀琀琀最愀爀琀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀 ⤀㬀 䜀伀刀刀䔀匀Ⰰ 䴀礀猀琀椀欀Ⰰ 䤀嘀 ⠀刀愀琀椀猀戀漀渀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㐀㈀⤀㬀 䐀唀刀刀Ⰰ 匀琀攀氀氀甀渀最 搀⸀ 䨀攀猀甀椀琀攀渀 椀渀 搀⸀ 搀攀甀琀猀挀栀攀渀 䠀攀砀攀渀瀀爀漀稀攀猀猀攀渀 ⠀䘀爀攀椀戀甀爀最Ⰰ ㄀㤀  ⤀㬀 倀䄀唀䰀唀匀Ⰰ 䠀攀砀攀渀眀愀栀渀 甀⸀ 䠀攀砀攀渀瀀爀漀稀攀猀猀 椀渀 ㄀㘀 䨀愀栀爀⸀ ⠀䘀爀攀椀戀甀爀琀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㄀ ⤀㬀 䠀䄀一匀䔀一Ⰰ 娀愀甀戀攀爀眀愀栀渀Ⰰ 攀琀挀⸀ 椀渀 䴀⸀ 䄀⸀ ⠀䴀甀渀椀挀栀Ⰰ ㄀㤀  ⤀㬀 䤀䐀䔀䴀Ⰰ 儀甀攀氀氀攀渀 甀渀搀 唀渀琀攀爀猀甀挀栀甀渀最攀渀 ⠀䈀攀爀氀椀渀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㄀⤀㬀 䐀攀 䌀䄀唀娀伀一匀Ⰰ 䰀愀 洀愀最椀攀 攀渀 䘀爀愀渀挀攀 ⠀㐀 瘀漀氀猀⸀Ⰰ 倀愀爀椀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㤀⤀㬀 䰀䔀䄀Ⰰ 䠀椀猀琀⸀ 漀昀 琀栀攀 䤀渀焀甀椀猀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 䤀䤀 ⠀一攀眀 夀漀爀欀Ⰰ ㄀㤀  ⤀㬀 䈀唀刀刀 椀渀 倀愀瀀攀爀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䄀洀攀爀⸀ 䠀椀猀琀⸀ 匀漀挀⸀Ⰰ 䤀嘀 ⠀一攀眀 夀漀爀欀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㐀⤀Ⰰ ㈀㌀㜀ⴀ㘀㘀㬀 刀䤀䔀吀娀䰀䔀刀Ⰰ 䠀攀砀攀渀瀀爀漀稀攀猀猀 椀渀 䈀愀礀攀爀渀 ⠀匀琀甀琀琀最愀爀琀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㘀⤀㬀 一伀吀䔀匀吀䔀䤀一Ⰰ 䠀椀猀琀漀爀礀 漀昀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 椀渀 䔀渀最氀愀渀搀 ⠀圀愀猀栀椀渀最琀漀渀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㄀㄀⤀㬀 䬀䤀吀吀刀䔀䐀䜀䔀Ⰰ 一漀琀攀猀 漀渀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 ⠀圀漀爀挀攀猀琀攀爀Ⰰ 䴀愀猀猀⸀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㜀⤀㬀 䈀䄀䤀匀匀䄀䌀Ⰰ 䰀攀猀 最爀愀渀搀猀 樀漀甀爀猀 搀攀 氀愀 猀漀爀挀攀氀氀攀爀椀攀 ⠀倀愀爀椀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀  ⤀㬀 䘀䔀刀䜀唀匀伀一Ⰰ 䈀椀戀氀椀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀挀愀氀 一漀琀攀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 䰀椀琀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 漀昀 匀挀漀琀氀愀渀搀 ⠀䔀搀椀渀戀甀爀最栀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㜀⤀㬀 䴀䄀匀匀伀一Ⰰ 䰀愀 猀漀爀挀攀氀氀攀爀椀攀 愀甀 砀瘀椀椀 猀椀攀挀氀攀 ⠀倀愀爀椀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㐀⤀㬀 夀嘀䔀ⴀ倀䰀䔀匀匀䤀匀Ⰰ 䈀椀戀氀椀漀最爀愀瀀栀椀攀 搀攀 氀愀 猀漀爀挀攀氀氀攀爀椀攀 ⠀倀愀爀椀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀  ⤀㬀 倀伀伀䰀䔀Ⰰ 匀愀氀攀洀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 ⠀䈀漀猀琀漀渀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㘀㤀⤀㬀 䰀䔀䠀䴀䄀一一Ⰰ 䄀戀攀爀最氀愀甀戀攀 甀⸀ 娀愀甀戀攀爀椀 ⠀匀琀甀琀琀最愀爀琀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㠀⤀㬀 䜀䔀刀䤀匀䠀Ⰰ 䄀 䠀攀爀琀昀漀爀琀猀栀椀爀攀 圀椀琀挀栀 ⠀䰀漀渀搀漀渀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㘀⤀㬀 唀倀䠀䄀䴀Ⰰ 䠀椀猀琀⸀ 漀昀 匀愀氀攀洀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 ⠀㈀ 瘀漀氀猀⸀Ⰰ 䈀漀猀琀漀渀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㘀㜀⤀㬀 䴀伀伀刀䔀Ⰰ 一漀琀攀猀 漀渀 琀栀攀 䠀椀猀琀⸀ 漀昀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 ⠀㔀 瘀漀氀猀⸀Ⰰ 圀漀爀挀攀猀琀攀爀Ⰰ 䴀愀猀猀⸀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀㌀ⴀ㠀㔀⤀㬀 吀䄀夀䰀伀刀Ⰰ 吀栀攀 圀椀琀挀栀挀爀愀昀琀 䐀攀氀甀猀椀漀渀 椀渀 䌀漀氀漀渀椀愀氀 䌀漀渀渀攀挀琀椀挀甀琀Ⰰ ㄀㘀㐀㜀ⴀ㄀㘀㤀㜀 ⠀㈀ 瘀漀氀猀⸀Ⰰ 䈀攀爀氀椀渀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㈀⤀㬀 䬀伀倀倀Ⰰ 䐀椀攀 䠀攀砀攀渀瀀爀漀稀攀猀猀 甀⸀ 椀栀爀攀 䜀攀最渀攀爀 椀渀 吀礀爀漀氀 ⠀䤀渀渀猀戀爀甀挀欀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㜀㐀⤀㬀 䈀䄀一䜀Ⰰ 一漀爀猀欀攀 䠀攀砀攀昀漀爀洀甀氀愀爀攀爀 ⠀䌀栀爀椀猀琀椀愀渀椀愀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㈀⤀⸀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀 ਀㰀瀀㸀䠀䔀刀䈀䔀刀吀 吀䠀唀刀匀吀伀一 㰀戀爀㸀吀爀愀渀猀挀爀椀戀攀搀 戀礀 䴀椀挀栀愀攀氀 吀⸀ 䈀愀爀爀攀琀琀 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀䐀攀搀椀挀愀琀攀搀 琀漀 挀愀琀攀挀栀椀猀琀猀 琀栀爀漀甀最栀 琀栀攀 愀最攀猀㰀⼀椀㸀 ਀    㰀昀漀渀琀 猀椀稀攀㴀∀ⴀ㈀∀㸀㰀椀㸀

਀        吀栀攀 䌀愀琀栀漀氀椀挀 䔀渀挀礀挀氀漀瀀攀搀椀愀Ⰰ
਀        䌀漀瀀礀爀椀最栀琀 ﴀ⃿㄀㤀 㜀 刀漀戀攀爀琀 䄀瀀瀀氀攀琀漀渀 䌀漀洀瀀愀渀礀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Remy Lafort, ਀        匀⸀吀⸀䐀⸀Ⰰ 䌀攀渀猀漀爀㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York

਀    㰀⼀椀㸀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀 ਀㰀瀀 愀氀椀最渀㴀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀⼀瀀㸀
਀    㰀戀爀 ⼀㸀
਀    㰀琀愀戀氀攀 挀攀氀氀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㴀  挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀挀椀渀最㴀 㸀